Selevan, S.G., C.A. Kimmel and P. Mendola. “Identifying critical windows of exposure for children’s health.” Environ Health Perspect. June 2000 108(Suppl 3): 451–455. See http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1637810/.

 

Rauh, V. A., F. P. Perera, M. K. Horton, R. M. Whyatt, R. Bansal, X. Hao, et al. “Brain Anomalies in Children Exposed Prenatally to a Common Organophosphate Pesticide.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. May 2012 109 (20): 7871-6. See http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1203396109.

 

Landrigan P.J., L. Lambertini and L.S. Birnbaum. “A Research Strategy to Discover the Environmental Causes of Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.” Environ Health Perspect. April 2012 120: a258-a260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104285.

 

Grandjean and Landrigan. “Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals,” The Lancet. Nov. 2006, Vol. 368. See http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2006- releases/press11072006.html.

 

Schettler, T., J. Stein, F. Reich and M. Valenti. In Harm’s Way: Toxic threats to child development. A report by Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility. 2000. See http://www.sehn. org/ecomedpublications.html.

 

Szpir M. “Tracing the Origins of Autism: A Spectrum of New Studies.” Environ Health Perspect. July 2006 114: A412-A418. See http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.114-a412.  

 

Landrigan P.J., L. Lambertini L, L.S. Birnbaum. “A Research Strategy to Discover the Environmental Causes of Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.” Environ Health Persp. April 2012 120: a258-a260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104285.

 

Eskenazi B., K. Huen, A. Marks, K.G.Harley, A. Bradman, D.B. Barr, et al. “PON1 and Neurodevelopment in Children from the CHAMACOS Study Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides in Utero.” Environ Health Perspect. Aug 2010 118: 1775-1781. See http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002234. 

 

Holland, N., C. Furlong, M. Bastaki, R. Ricther, A. Bradman, K. Huen, et al. “Paraoxonase Polymorphisms, Haplotypes, and Enzyme Activity in Latino Mothers and Newborns.” Environ Health Perspect. July 2006 114 (7): 985–991. See http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513322/.

 

Insel, T. The New Genetics of Autism: Why Environment Matters. National Institute of Mental Health. April 2012. See http:// www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2012/the-new-genetics-of- autism-why-environment-matters.shtml.

 

National Research Council 2000. Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press: pg 21. See http://www.nap.edu/ catalog.php?record_id=9871.

 

Ontario College of Family Physicians. Systematic Review of Pesticide Health Effects. 2012. See http://www.ocfp.on.ca/ docs/pesticides-paper/2012-systematic-review-of-pesticide. pdf?sfvrsn=6.

 

Developmental Pyrethroid Exposure and ADHD, grant proposal from Rutgers University. http://www.labome.org/ grant/r21/es/developmental/pyrethroid/developmental- pyrethroid-exposure-and-adhd-7278327.html,

18 Bouchard M., et al. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides,” Pediatrics. 2010 125 (6): 1270-1277. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-3058.

 

Horton, M.K., L.G. Kahn, F. Perera, D.B. Barr and V. Rauh. “Does the Home Environment and the Sex of the Child Modify the Adverse Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos on Child Working Memory?” Neurotoxicology and Teratology. July 2012. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0892036212001389.

 

Kuehn, B. “Increased Risk of ADHD Associated With Early Exposure to Pesticides, PCBs,” JAMA. July 2010 304(1): 27-28. See http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article. aspx?articleid=186163.

 

Marks, A.R., K. Harley, A. Bradman, K. Kogut, D.B. Barr, C. Johnson, et al. “Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Attention in Young Mexican-American Children: The CHAMACOS Study.” Environ Health Persp. Dec 2010 118,(12): 1768–1774.

 

Pastor et al. 2008, op. cit.22 Sathyanarayana S., O. Basso, C.J. Karr, P. Lozano, M. Alavanja,

D.P. Sandler, et al. “Maternal pesticide use and birth weight in the agricultural health study” J Agromedicine. April 2010 15 (2): 127-36. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20407994.

 

Fenster L, B. Eskenazi, M. Anderson, A. Bradman, K. Harley, H. Hernandez, et al. “Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population.” Environ Health Persp. April 2006 114 (4): 597-602. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16581552.

 

Elwan, M.A, J.R. Richardson, T.S. Guillot, W.M. Caudle and G.W. Miller. “Pyrethroid Pesticide-induced Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Function.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. March 2006 211(3),: 188–197.

 

Nasuti, C., R. Gabbianelli, M.L. Falcioni, A.D. Stefano, P. Sozio and F. Cantalamessa. “Dopaminergic System Modulation, Behavioral Changes, and Oxidative Stress After Neonatal Administration of Pyrethroids.” Toxicology. Jan 2007 229 (3): 194–205.

 

Faraone, S.V. and S.A. Khan. “Candidate Gene Studies of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008 67 Suppl 8: 13–20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/16961425.

 

Baio, Jon. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008. Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2008 Principal Investigators. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, March 30, 2012. http:// www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6103a1.htm.

 

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Dufault, R., W.J. Lukiw, R. Crider, R. Schnoll, D. Wallinga andR. Deth. “A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States,” Clinical Epigenetics. 2012 4:6 http://www.clinicalepigeneticsjournal.com/ content/4/1/6/abstract.

 

CDC press release “CDC estimates 1 in 88 children in United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder.” http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2012/p0329_ autism_disorder.html, April 2012.

 

Roberts, E.M., P.B. English, J.K. Grether, G.C. Windham, L. Somberg and C. Wolff. “Maternal Residence Near Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children in the California Central Valley.” Environ Health

Persp. 2007 115 (10): 1482-9. See http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ docs/2007/10168/abstract.html.

 

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Eskenazi B., A.R. Marks, A. Bradman, K. Harley, D.B. Barr, C. Johnson, et al. “Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children,” Environ Health Persp. May 2007 115(5): 792-8. See http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17520070.

 

Rauh, V.A., R. Garfinkel, F.P. Perera, H.F. Andrews, L. Hoepner, D.B. Barr,et al. “Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children.” Pediatrics. Dec 2006 118 (6): e1845–e1859.

 

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O’Roak B.J., L. Vives, S. Girirajan, E. Karakoc, N. Krumm, B.P. Coe, et al. “Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations,” Nature. Apr 2012485 (7397): 246-50. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22495309.

 

Neale B.M., Y. Kou, L. Liu, A. Ma’ayan, K.E. Samocha, A. Sabo, et al. “Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders,” Nature. Apr 2012 485 (7397): 242-5. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495311.

 

Dufault R., W.J. Lukiw, R. Crider, R. Schnoll, D. Wallinga, R. Deth, “A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States,” Clin Epigenetics. Apr 2012 4(1):6. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22490277.

 

Needleman, H.L., C. Gunnoe, A Leviton, R. Reed, H. Peresie, C. Maher et al. “Deficits in Psychologic and Classroom Performance of Children with Elevated Dentine Lead Levels.” N Engl J Med 1979; 300:689-695.

 

Bellinger, D.C. “A Strategy for Comparing the Contributionsof Environmental Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children.” Environ Health Persp. 120, no. 4 Apr 2012: 501–507.

 

Engel, S.M., J. Wetmur, J. Chen, C. Zhu, D.B. Barr, R.L. Canfield, et al. “Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood.” Environ Health Persp. April 2011 119 (8):: 1182–1188.

40 Bouchard, M.F.

 

J. Chevrier, K.G. Harley, K. Kogut, M. Vedar,N. Calderon, et al. “Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children.” Environ Health Persp. April 2011 119 (8): 1189–1195.

 

Rauh, V., S. Arunajadai, M. Horton, F. Perera, L. Hoepner, D.B. Barr et al. “Seven-Year Neurodevelopmental Scores and Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos, a Common Agricultural Pesticide.” Environ Health Persp. April 2011 119 (8): 1196–1201.

See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237355/.

 

Whyatt, R.M. and D.B. Barr. “Measurement of Organophosphate Metabolites in Postpartum Meconium as a Potential Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure: a Validation Study.” Environ Health Persp. April 2001 109 (4): 417–420.

 

Whyatt, R.M., V. Rauh, D.B. Barr, D.E. Camann, H.F. Andrews, R. Garfinkel, et al. “Prenatal Insecticide Exposures and Birth Weight and Length Among an Urban Minority Cohort.” Environ Health Persp.. Mar 2004 112 (10): 1125–1132. 

Peer Reviewed Studies linking Pesticides to Children's Health Impacts

Many research studies have investigated the between link pesticides to children's health issues, including autism, attention deficit disorder and brain function and brain development.  Of great concern was a policy statement and report released by the American Academy of Pediatrics stating:

 

"Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers,

decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems."

 

 

In efforts to debunk agrochemical industry myths that science does not support the connection between pesticide exposure and health risks, here is a sample list of the many studies on those focused issues.  

 

 

This list was released as part of the survey study, A Generation in Jeopardy:  How Pesticides Are Undermining Our Children's Health and Intelligence published by the pesticide research organization, Pesticide Action Network.  Since its publications several new studies have been released supporting and expanding the scientific support of the link between pesticides and children's health.

 

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